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Movember Series (II): "Man Boobs"

In our ongoing "Movember Series," we delve into men's health issues, aiming to provide insights, awareness, and solutions. Today, we explore a condition that many men find distressing but often hesitate to discuss: gynecomastia (and pseudogynaecomastia), colloquially known as "man boobs." In this article, we'll uncover the causes, clinical features, investigations, touch upon male breast cancer, and delve into the treatments, with a focus on surgical procedures.


Gynecomastia is a common condition characterized by the development of excess breast tissue in males. It's essential to differentiate between gynecomastia and pseudo-gynecomastia, which involves fat accumulation in the chest area due to weight gain. Gynecomastia, on the other hand, results from an imbalance between estrogen (female sex hormone) and testosterone (male sex hormone) levels in the male body. It can affect one or both breasts and may occur at any age, from infancy to old age.

Causes of Gynecomastia:

1. Hormonal Imbalance: The most common cause, often occurring during puberty, when hormonal fluctuations are common. It can also result from hormonal disorders, aging, or certain medical conditions.

2. Medications: Some drugs, such as certain antipsychotics, antiandrogens, and anabolic steroids, can trigger gynecomastia as a side effect.

3. Health Conditions: Conditions like liver or kidney disease, hyperthyroidism, or tumors affecting the testes or adrenal glands can contribute to gynecomastia.

4. Lifestyle Factors: Excessive alcohol consumption or the use of recreational drugs can also play a role.


Both gynecomastia and psuedo-gynaecomastia are primarily identified by the presence of firm, rubbery tissue around the breast area, and more so beneath the nipple area. It can be tender or painful in some cases. Emotional discomfort is also a common symptom, as many men may feel self-conscious or embarrassed about their appearance.


If gynecomastia is suspected, a healthcare provider may conduct various tests to determine its cause. This may include blood tests, mammograms, and ultrasounds. In some instances, a biopsy may be necessary to rule out the possibility of male breast cancer.


While gynecomastia is a benign condition, it's essential not to ignore the risk of male breast cancer especially if the enlargement is asymmetrical (i.e. one side is significantly larger than the other). The symptoms of male breast cancer, such as a painless lump in the breast or nipple discharge, can sometimes mimic gynecomastia. Any unusual changes in the breast should be evaluated promptly by a healthcare professional to rule out more serious conditions.


Gynecomastia can be managed through various approaches, depending on the underlying cause and the extent of breast tissue development. Treatment options include:

1. Lifestyle Modifications For some, gynecomastia caused by weight gain can be improved through diet and exercise.

2. Medication

In cases where hormonal imbalances are the primary cause, medications may help restore the hormonal equilibrium.

3. Surgery

Surgical intervention is often the most effective method for addressing gynecomastia, particularly for cases with significant breast tissue development.


When gynecomastia requires surgical intervention, two primary procedures are commonly employed:

1. Liposuction

This technique is suitable for cases primarily involving excess fatty tissue. It involves making small incisions and using a cannula to remove the fat. Liposuction results in minimal scarring and a shorter recovery period. This is typically performed as a day procedure. Pressure garments are required postoperatively to optimize results.

This option is not suitable for patients whose gynaecomastia is consisted of primarily fibrous or glandular tissue.

2. Surgical Excision

For patients with more substantial glandular (rather than fatty) tissue, surgical excision is necessary. It entails removing the excess tissue through incisions, usually around the areola. This procedure is highly effective in reducing the prominence of gynecomastia. Again the procedure is typically performed as a day procedure. Pressure garments are required postoperatively to optimize results.

Recovery from gynecomastia surgery typically involves a short downtime, and patients can return to their regular activities within a few weeks.


"Man boobs" is a condition that can impact a man's physical and emotional well-being. However, with appropriate diagnosis and treatment, individuals can regain their self-confidence and achieve a more contoured chest. If you suspect you may be dealing with gynecomastia, don't hesitate to consult a healthcare professional for a thorough evaluation and guidance on the best course of action to address this condition. Stay tuned for more in our "Movember Series," dedicated to promoting men's health and well-being.


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